Powering today’s technology

Many consumer products on the market today tout their lithium batteries as a selling feature. Is this an actual selling point? Are lithium-powered products really better than those that run on other battery types? The short answer to both questions is, yes, lithium batteries offer major advantages over other battery types with very few drawbacks. Here, we’ll look at the advantages and disadvantages of lithium batteries, as well as examine a few types of products that have been improved by incorporating lithium technology.

What is a lithium battery?

Basically, a lithium battery is one that uses lithium ions as a key component of its electrochemistry. In a lithium battery, lithium atoms are ionized and separated from their electrons. The lithium ions then move from the anode through an electrolyte until they reach a cathode, where they reassemble with their electrons.

Higher energy density

One of the greatest advantages of lithium batteries is that they have much higher energy density than other rechargeable battery technologies. Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given volume or weight, and it’s usually expressed as Wh/kg (watt hours per kilogram). Lithium ion batteries in use today have the highest energy density of any battery technology, usually ranging from 100-265 Wh/kg.[1] Some of the newest lithium EV batteries in development have an even higher energy density of up to 315 Wh/kg and can recharge up to 80% in just 10 minutes.[2] In comparison, lead acid batteries have an energy density ranging from 30-50 Wh/kg, Ni-Cd batteries boast an energy density of 45-80 , and Ni-MH batteries have an energy density of 60-120 Wh/kg.[3]

Lighter and more compact

Due to their higher energy density, lithium ion batteries are lighter and more compact than other battery types. In fact, they make much of today’s technology feasible. Imagine if smartphones weighed 10 lbs. (4.5 kg) instead of the 6.07 oz. (172 g) weight of the iPhone 14.[4] Would they be as ubiquitous as they are now? Without small, lightweight lithium batteries everyone’s life would look very different. So, if you’ve ever slipped a battery-powered device into a pocket, purse, backpack, or glove box, this was largely made possible by the development of lithium ion batteries.

Ideal for high-power applications

Lithium ion battery technology is also advantageous for high-power applications, where a battery needs to deliver large amounts of current, such as jump starting a vehicle. Lithium ion batteries deliver up to 3.6 volts, which in comparison is three times higher than the voltage delivered by Ni-Cd or Ni-MH batteries.[5]

Recharge faster and hold a charge longer

If you want a device that will recharge quickly and hold a charge for months or years, then look for one powered by a lithium battery. The chemistry of lithium ion batteries allows them to accept current at a faster rate, allowing them to charge much faster than other battery types.[6] For example, charging a lead acid battery might take more than 10 hours where, depending on the battery’s size, a lithium battery can recharge in three hours or even a few minutes.

All battery types will lose charge or self-discharge over time. However, lithium ion batteries have an extremely low discharge rate of only 1.5% to 2% a month. In comparison, lead acid batteries lose about 5% of their charge in a month and nickel-based batteries will lose 10% to 15% of their charge in the first 24 hours and then 10% to 15% a month after that.[7] Practically, this means that if you charge a lithium battery pack and then store it in a drawer for the next year, at the end of the year the battery pack will retain between 76% and 82% of its full charge.

Increased lifespan

Battery lifespans can vary greatly although all batteries will degrade over time and lose effectiveness as they age. Usually measured by battery cycles, lifespans or cycle life are the number of complete charges and discharges a battery can experience before it will no longer hold a charge.[8] Therefore, discharging a battery to 50% and then recharging it to 100% would only count as half of a battery cycle. For example, consider a boat battery. If you compare an SLA battery (a type of lead acid battery often used in boats) to a lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery you will get a greatly different total number of charge cycles. The difference in chemistry between the SLA and LiFePO4 battery will result in the SLA battery lasting between 50 and 500 cycles, while the LiFePO4 battery will last from 1,000 to 10,000 cycles.[9]  Many affordable lithium ion batteries used in consumer products ranging from flashlights to speakers will deliver at least 300 to 500 full discharge/charge cycles before the battery’s capacity drops below 80%.[10]

Also extending the lifespan in lithium batteries is the lack of memory effect. Nickel-based rechargeable batteries, for example, will gradually lose their capacity to store energy if they are only partially discharged. The “memory” of the partial discharge reduces the capacity of future chargers and thus negatively impacts battery lifespan.

Lithium batteries also hold the advantage for depth of discharge, which is the percentage of the battery charge that can be safely drained without causing damage to the battery.[11] Lithium batteries can be safely discharged of 85% of their total capacity, while lead acid batteries can’t be discharged past 50% without negatively impacting the battery’s lifespan.[12]

All these factors combined can easily give a lithium battery a lifespan of 10-15 years vs. 3 to 12 years for a lead acid battery.[13]

Disadvantages of lithium batteries

Despite all the advantages lithium batteries possess, they do have a couple of significant drawbacks, namely the increased fire risk and their greater cost.

Because lithium batteries simply contain more energy, they also have more energy to release when something goes wrong. In fact, the higher a battery’s energy density, the more dangerous it has the potential to be.

One of the largest risks of lithium ion batteries is their susceptibility to thermal runaway. In thermal runaway the lithium battery begins an uncontrollable self-heating state, which can result in extremely high temperatures, fire, and even explosion.[14] Depending on a lithium battery’s chemistry, some are more dangerous than others. For example, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries are less likely to overheat than other lithium battery chemistries.[15]

Compounding the threat posed by a thermal runaway reaction, the liquid electrolytes used in lithium batteries are highly volatile and increase the risk of fire. That’s why most lithium batteries include built-in safety features and self-imposed limits on just how energy dense they can be.

The other major drawback to lithium batteries is a higher up-front cost than lead acid and other battery types. However, the cost advantages for other battery types can disappear when usage patterns and battery lifespans are factored in

It’s time to switch to lithium batteries

Lead acid batteries were first developed in 1859 and have enjoyed more than 160 years of popularity since.[16] The first viable lithium ion battery was patented more than a century later in 1976.[17] Since the first lithium battery was introduced sales have taken off and lithium batteries have made themselves indispensable to our daily lives. They power our smartphones, laptops, and even our homes. In addition, each year sees improvements to their efficiency, lifespan, and safety, while seeing a decrease in their associated costs. Today’s lithium batteries are superior in almost every way to other commercially available battery types. With this in mind, why would you choose any other battery?

YouTuber Faye Hadley Demonstrates How to Jump Start a Vehicle with a Portable Lithium Jump Starter

The beloved host of Pistons and PixieDust, Faye Hadley, walks her viewers through jump starting a vehicle using a Schumacher Rugged Lithium portable jump starter. Faye shows viewers how to diagnose a dead battery, how to prevent damage from a reversed connection, and how to choose the right portable jump starter for your needs. Then she demonstrates a successful jump start of a 1996 Toyota Hiace diesel 5-speed, four-wheel drive camper.

Lithium-Powered Products to Buy Today

For superior power, lifespan, and fast recharging, in a lightweight, compact package, look for lithium-powered consumer products. Here are a few of our top picks.

Schumacher SL1638

Lithium Portable Power Pack and 800A 12V Jump Starter

Schumacher SL1654

Rugged Lithium Portable Power / 2250A Jump Starter

Schumacher SL1460

330Wh Portable Lithium Generator

Craftsman CMXCESM256

Portable Power Station and 1200 Peak Amp Jump Starter with Air Compressor, LED Light, and Multiple Outlets

[1] “Lithium-Ion Battery,” Clean Energy Institute, University of Washington,  https://www.cei.washington.edu/education/science-of-solar/battery-technology/, Accessed 29 March 2023.

[2] Kennedy, Ryan, “EV battery has 50% more energy density than traditional lithium-ion, 10-minute charge,” PV Magazine, https://pv-magazine-usa.com/2023/02/08/ev-battery-has-50-more-energy-density-than-lithium-ion-10-minute-charge/, Accessed 29 March 2023.

[3] “Battery Cell Comparison,” epec Engineered Technologies, https://www.epectec.com/batteries/cell-comparison.html, Accessed 29 March 2023.

[4] “iPhone 14,” Apple Inc., https://www.apple.com/iphone-14/specs/, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[5] “Lithium-Ion Battery,” Clean Energy Institute, University of Washington,  https://www.cei.washington.edu/education/science-of-solar/battery-technology/, Accessed 29 March 2023.

[6] “Spot the Difference: Lithium Ion Versus Lead Acid Battery Electric Technology,” Cummins Inc., https://www.cummins.com/news/2019/06/17/spot-difference-lithium-ion-versus-lead-acid-battery-electric-technology, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[7] “BU-802b: What does Elevated Self-discharge Do?,” Battery University, https://batteryuniversity.com/article/bu-802b-what-does-elevated-self-discharge-do, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[8] Veldboom, Bryan, “How Do Battery Charging Cycles Work?,” Batteries Plus, https://www.batteriesplus.com/blog/power/battery-discharge-cycle, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[9] Veldboom, Bryan, “How Do Battery Charging Cycles Work?,” Batteries Plus, https://www.batteriesplus.com/blog/power/battery-discharge-cycle, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[10] “BU-801b: How to Define Battery Life,” Battery University, https://batteryuniversity.com/article/bu-801b-how-to-define-battery-life, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[11] “Lead-acid vs lithium-ion battery comparison,” Energy Sage, https://news.energysage.com/lithium-ion-vs-lead-acid-batteries/, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[12] “Lead-acid vs lithium-ion battery comparison,” Energy Sage, https://news.energysage.com/lithium-ion-vs-lead-acid-batteries/, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[13] “Lead-acid vs lithium-ion battery comparison,” Energy Sage, https://news.energysage.com/lithium-ion-vs-lead-acid-batteries/, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[14] “What Causes Thermal Runaway, Electrochemical Safety Research Institute, UL Research Institutes, https://ul.org/research/electrochemical-safety/getting-started-electrochemical-safety/what-causes-thermal, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[15] Murphy Kelly, Samantha, “Lithium-ion battery fires are happening more often. Here’s how to prevent them,” CNN Business, https://www.cnn.com/2023/03/09/tech/lithium-ion-battery-fires/index.html, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[16] “Can the Lead-acid Battery Compete in Modern Times?,” Battery University, https://batteryuniversity.com/article/can-the-lead-acid-battery-compete-in-modern-times, Accessed 30 March 2023.

[17] “John B. Goodenough,” Fuergy, https://www.fuergy.com/blog/john-b-goodenough-the-inventor-of-the-li-ion-battery, Accessed 30 March 2023.

This Mother’s Day Give the Moms in Your Life a Power Boost with the Latest in Portable Power – From Jump Starters to Power Stations

Every mother has superpowers. They can do a dozen things at once, have eyes in the back of their heads, and can cope with any emergency. Moms also seem to have vast stores of energy to get through their seemingly endless list of tasks, responsibilities, and activities. This Mother’s Day give your mother a gift to boost her powers and make her days a bit easier.

Schumacher Electric has a wide array of products to manage an emergency, provide power on the go, and just make life more comfortable when you walk out your door. With Schumacher, mom doesn’t always have to be the hero. We can come to the rescue if she has a roadside emergency, recharge her tablet before book club, and power all her tailgating accessories during a Saturday soccer game.

Your Mom Can Be Her Own Hero

A dead battery can happen to anyone, but for moms it can be especially challenging. Imagine a mom you know with a car full of kids. Then, when she tries to turn on the vehicle, she finds a dead battery. Maybe it’s a hot day or the kids are especially cranky. Or maybe the mom you’re picturing is older and alone in an unsafe location. In these situations, it’s not always practical to wait for a tow truck or a good Samaritan to come to the rescue.

It’s easy to give moms the power to provide their own rescue. Simply gift them a Schumacher SL1648 1250A Rugged Lithium Jump Starter and Portable Power Pack this Mother’s Day. This jump starter features a compact size that fits in most center consoles and glove boxes, along with 1250 amps of jump starting power suitable for up to 6.0L gas and 3.0L diesel engines. It’s easy to use and also features a USB port to charge devices like a cranky toddler’s tablet. With this jump starter, mom will have the peace of mind of knowing a dead battery won’t slow her down for long.

Another option for on-the-go moms is the CRAFTSMAN CMXCESM256 Portable Power Station and 1200 Peak Amp Jump Starter. With this tool, Mom can tackle a range of emergencies and emerge victorious. In addition to a powerful jump starter, the unit also serves as a portable power station, letting mom power a range of devices including smartphones, tablets, and power tools with the 12V DC port, 120V AC household outlet with 200W inverter, and four-port USB hub. Mom can also defeat a flat tire or a deflated beach ball with the built-in 100-PSI automatic air compressor.

With either of these handy tools, mom will be prepared for any roadside emergency that comes her way.

Take Mom’s Seat on the Sidelines Up a Notch

For moms with active children, weekends are often spent on the sidelines cheering their offspring on to victory (or at least a participation trophy). This doesn’t have to mean an uncomfortable camp chair under a blazing hot sun in the summer or shivering from a cold north wind in the winter. With a little help from Schumacher, you can help the moms in your life elevate their tailgating prowess and make their children’s athletic activities something to look forward to.

Compact and lightweight, the Schumacher SL1638 Lithium Ion Portable Power Pack and 800A 12V Jump Starter will make any basketball, football, baseball, or soccer game more comfortable and a lot more fun. With the SL1638, there’s no need to worry about a dying smartphone battery. The unit’s 2.4A USB port lets you charge all of your mobile devices two times faster than a standard USB port. Mom will be able to make it through an all-day tournament with ease.

Moms Don’t Stop When the Sun Goes Down

Unlike solar panels and sundials, mothers don’t quit working when it gets dark. They are still busy, helping with homework, cooking dinner, or shuttling kids between ballet and karate. While moms have tons of superpowers, seeing in the dark isn’t one of them. So, give a mom in your life a little help with the gift of a handy portable area light. The Schumacher SL923 LED Rechargeable Work Light is compact and powerful, easily able to illuminate any area where mom needs to boost the ambient lighting. It’s perfect for emergencies, such as helping complete Timmy’s class project during a power outage or shining a light on the hijinks of Susie’s backyard camp out. And for those times when mom’s smartphone is almost out of juice, the SL923 has a discrete USB output on the back capable of restoring a full charge.

Mom, the Green Warrior

Many moms are becoming green warriors to ensure their children will have a sustainable future. Whether this means solar panels on the roof, organic local produce in the refrigerator, or an electric vehicle in the garage, these moms are committed to saving the planet.

A busy mom will put many miles on the odometer as she runs from ballet lessons to soccer practice to the grocery store. With an EV, a busy Saturday of errands and children’s activities mean mom may have to add a charge to her car while attending a birthday party or while sitting on the sidelines at a soccer game. With the Schumacher SC1455 Level 1 and Level 2 Portable EV Charger, mom can fill up almost anywhere. She can plug her EV into any 120V AC household outlet or 240V NEMA 6-20P outlet and charge up before she heads to her next destination.

The Power of Thank You

Unlike superheroes, moms rarely get accolades or blockbuster films based on their adventures. They don’t have huge fan bases or cosplayers dedicated to replicating the outfit they wore to their last parent-teacher conference. However, you can show the moms close to you that their fan bases, while small, are devoted. This Mother’s Day give her something that will make her life a little easier, give her peace of mind, and show her just how much she is appreciated.

Since it’s National Car Care Month, I got to thinking about automotive maintenance and the many mistakes I made as a car owner in my teens and twenties. When I was a new driver, my parents ensured I knew the basics of auto maintenance. I learned how to change a tire, how to jump a battery, and even how to change my oil. But if you’re like me you never learned anything about routine battery maintenance. For most of my life, I assumed that my battery was a maintenance-free component of my vehicle. My car either started or it didn’t. If it didn’t start, I either needed a jump start or a completely new battery. That was the complete extent of my battery knowledge.

In the years since, I’ve learned that proper battery care involves more than just also making sure you turn your headlights off when you turn off your ignition. Here are 13 steps for easy battery maintenance.

1. Clean the battery terminals

Dirty or corroded battery terminals are a leading cause of battery failure. Corrosion can hamper power flow from your automotive battery. In extreme cases, it can be extreme enough to prevent the battery from providing enough power to start your vehicle. Corrosion can also cause the terminals to overheat, which can cause damage to the battery and battery cables.

To clean your battery terminals, start by identifying the positive and negative terminals. Completely disconnect the battery, starting with the negative terminal followed by the positive terminal and making sure that neither of the battery cables touch metal during the process. Make a mixture of equal parts baking soda and water. Apply the mixture with a hard-bristle brush to both battery terminals. When finished, wipe the terminals down with a wet rag, removing all the baking soda and water mixture. Then wipe with a dry cloth. Reconnect the battery cables, starting with the positive terminal.

2. Use terminal spray to prevent future corrosion

An easy way to help prevent the buildup of dirt and corrosion on your battery terminals is to use a battery terminal spray. After cleaning your battery terminals as explained in step 1 and before reconnecting the battery cables, simply apply the terminal spray to both battery terminals and the terminal ends of your battery cables. Then reconnect the battery cables.

3. Make sure the battery and cables are tightly secured

Too much vibration can damage batteries and battery cables. Make sure everything is tightly secured to prevent this from happening.

Start by opening the hood and carefully shake the battery. If there is no movement, you’re finished. If the battery moves, then your battery hold-down is probably loose. Tighten any bolts securing the hold-down and check to see if this has eliminated all battery movement. There are a variety of different hold-downs ranging from a simple bar across the top of the battery, to a hold-down pad at the base of the battery. If this doesn’t eliminate movement in your battery or if your hold-down is damaged, replace the hold-down.

4. Keep the battery warm

When the battery drops below the freezing point, your battery faces a host of challenges. However, it comes down to this. Your battery must work harder in winter and cold climates. One contributing factor to this is that cold temperatures reduce battery capacity, meaning that it is harder for the battery to generate the amount of energy needed to crank the engine and activate the starter motor. In fact, batteries lose about 20 percent of their capacity when the temperature is around 32°F and it gets worse the lower the temperature falls.[1]

During cold weather, your battery also recharges at a slower rate, requiring more time for the alternator to fully recharge the battery. Cold temps also equal more demand on your battery. Each accessory draws power and running your heater, defroster, or windshield wipers will increase the demand for power, which lengthens recharging time even further. Finally, when temperatures are low engine oil thickens, so your car battery must work harder to crank your engine.

One way to combat the drain cold temperatures cause, is to keep your battery warm. A battery heater is a simple way to do this. Some battery heaters are similar to a heating pad that you might use on a sore back but are instead wrapped around your battery to insulate it and heat your battery to a temperature above freezing. They generally will plug into any standard AC outlet. Other battery blankets are simply an insulated fabric that wraps around the battery.

In addition, some jump starters and battery chargers are equipped with pre-heating technology to warm your battery prior to starting or jump starting. For example, the Schumacher SL1648 Rugged Lithium 1250A Jump Starter warms the battery, making it possible to jump start even in extremely cold temperatures.

5. Check battery fluid levels

The are several common automotive battery types, including lead-acid wet cell (also known as standard lead-acid), lead-acid gel cell (or dry cell), absorbed glass mat (AGM), lithium-ion (Li-ion), and Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH). Of these battery types, lead-acid wet cell are the most common and the only type that will need to have its battery fluid levels checked. If you’re unsure of what type of battery you have, check the battery itself. It should be clearly labeled.

Before you get started, make sure you’re wearing gloves and protective eyewear. Then look at the labeling on the battery for any warnings or indications whether the battery can be opened and serviced. Once you confirm that your battery can be watered, check the water level in your battery. There should be just enough water to cover any exposed plates. If the plates are covered, close any caps or coverings you’ve opened, and then you’re done.

If any part of the plates are exposed, you will need to completely charge your battery before continuing. You can use a product like the Schumacher SC1280 15A 6V/12V Fully Automatic Battery Charger and Maintainer to do this. Then, add enough distilled water to completely cover the battery place but not reach the bottom of the vent. Do not over water. This can cause the battery to overflow and reduce the battery’s capacity and performance.

6. Reduce load when the vehicle is turned off

An easy way to be kind to your battery and prevent damage is to unplug devices when the car isn’t running. Leaving smartphones, GPS navigators, and other accessories plugged in can drain power, leaving you with a dead battery. It’s also a good idea to turn off headlights and interior lights when you turn off your engine. They will also drain power from the battery. Also, make sure you start your car before turning lights back on, which reduces the strain on your battery during starting.

7. Avoid short trips and drive your car regularly

Your car battery will recharge as you drive. How long it will take for a full recharge depends on a range of factors, such as the percent of charge after starting, battery health, the amperage produced by the alternator, and the number of your car’s accessory systems that are running. Short trips often don’t allow your car’s alternator enough time to fully recharge your battery. At least once a week take a 20-30 minute drive to ensure your battery is recharged.

8. Monitor your battery’s output voltage

Test your battery regularly. You can do this with a multimeter or a battery charger that has a built-in battery tester like the CRAFTSMAN CMXCESM253 100-Amp 6V/12V Fully Automatic Battery Charger and Jump Starter. Using a multimeter, connect the red (positive) lead or clamp to the battery’s positive terminal, then the black (negative) lead to the negative terminal. Set the meter to the DC volt setting and check your results. Batteries with a reading of at least 12.4 volts are sufficiently charged and should work as intended.[2] If the battery has a reading below 12.4 volts, attempt to charge the battery. If it cannot be recharged, replace the battery immediately. Alternatively, you can take your vehicle to a professional garage or service center. They have more sophisticated equipment and can quickly tell you if a battery should be replaced.

9. Use a maintainer/trickle charger for stored/unused batteries

If you use your vehicle infrequently or will be storing a vehicle, it’s a good idea to use a battery maintainer or trickle charger. The maintainer is plugged into a regular AC power outlet and delivers power when needed to keep the battery fully charged and in top condition.

If you are looking for a reliable maintainer, a good option is the Duralast 2A 6V/12V Battery Maintainer (DL-2D). The DL-2D battery maintainer is ideal for use with motorcycle, car, and marine batteries and features fully automatic operation

10. Do not overcharge your battery

Overcharging a battery will negatively impact its health and longevity. Most fully automatic battery chargers on the market today are intelligent enough to detect when your battery is fully charged and will stop feeding power to it. However, some older chargers/maintainers or manually operated units cannot detect a full battery and will keep sending power past the point where it is fully charged. To avoid this, look for a battery charger and/or maintainer that features float mode monitoring, which ensures that once a battery is fully charged that the unit will only supply power if the battery voltage drops below a certain point.

For a battery charger that employs float mode monitoring, check out the Schumacher Pro 12V Battery Charger and 80A Jump Starter (SPR1629).

11. Properly maintain your entire vehicle

Your battery is just one part of your vehicle. All your vehicle’s systems must work together for optimum performance. Routine maintenance such as regular oil changes and replacing spark plugs can have a positive impact on battery health. 

12. When buying a new battery, check the manufacture date

When it is time to replace a battery, make sure you check the date of manufacture and purchase a battery no more than one month old. You don’t want to purchase a battery that has already lost a good portion of its service life sitting on a shelf in your local auto parts store. Buy your battery at a high-volume seller that always has fresh stock and check the manufacture date on the battery before you complete your purchase.

Add battery care to your routine vehicle maintenance

Now that you know how to care for your car battery, it is easy to apply your knowledge and add battery care to your car’s regular maintenance schedule.

Warning signs of battery problems

While your battery might die abruptly, usually there are signs that it may be struggling. The following are four signs that your battery may need to be replaced soon.

1. Grinding or clicking sound when you crank the ignition

The most common reason for the rapid clicking sound when you try to start your vehicle is a bad battery. The clicking noise can be caused by the starter motor pinion gear connecting with the flywheel because your battery doesn’t have the power needed to spin the engine.[3] The first thing you should check is if your battery is still good. If it is, you can probably just jump start the battery. If the battery is bad, the problem can be eliminated by simply replacing the battery.

2. It takes longer for your engine to start

This most likely indicates a weak battery. Your battery may be reaching the end of its lifecycle or have another issue that has impacted its health. Have your battery tested and replaced if needed.

3. Headlights dim when idling and then brighten when you rev the engine

A common reason for headlights that dim during idling but brighten when the engine is revved is a low voltage supply.[4] Start by checking the battery. Are the battery terminal connections secure? If they are, check the battery to see if it needs to be replaced. Often, replacing the battery will fix the issue. However, in some cases dim headlights can indicate a problem with the alternator or your car’s charging system.

4. Your battery is old

No battery will last forever. Most automotive batteries will last for 3 to 5 years. So, if your battery is on the older side of that range it may need to be replaced.

[1] “How to Help Prevent 4 Common Cold Weather Battery Issues,” Firestone, https://www.firestonecompleteautocare.com/blog/batteries/preventing-winter-battery-issues/, Accessed 5 April 2023.

[2] “5 Ways to Extend the Life of Your Car Battery,” Reader’s Digest Canada, https://www.readersdigest.ca/cars/maintenance/extend-life-car-battery/, Accessed 5 April 2023.

[3] Lacivita, Bob, “Why is My Car Making a Clicking Noise When Starting?,” Family Handyman, https://www.familyhandyman.com/article/car-clicks-when-starting/, Accessed 5 April 2023.

[4]Why do my dim headlights brighten only when I rev the engine?,” Torque, https://www.torque.com.sg/advice/why-do-my-dim-headlights-brighten-only-when-i-rev-the-engine/, Accessed 5 April 2023.


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